(PHP 4, PHP 5, PHP 7, PHP 8)

mkdirMakes directory


    string $directory,
    int $permissions = 0777,
    bool $recursive = false,
    ?resource $context = null
): bool

Attempts to create the directory specified by directory.



The directory path.


A URL can be used as a filename with this function if the fopen wrappers have been enabled. See fopen() for more details on how to specify the filename. See the Supported Protocols and Wrappers for links to information about what abilities the various wrappers have, notes on their usage, and information on any predefined variables they may provide.


The permissions are 0777 by default, which means the widest possible access. For more information on permissions, read the details on the chmod() page.


permissions is ignored on Windows.

Note that you probably want to specify the permissions as an octal number, which means it should have a leading zero. The permissions is also modified by the current umask, which you can change using umask().


If true, then any parent directories to the directory specified will also be created, with the same permissions.


A context stream resource.

Return Values

Returns true on success or false on failure.


If the directory to be created already exists, that is considered an error and false will still be returned. Use is_dir() or file_exists() to check if the directory already exists before trying to create it.


Emits an E_WARNING level error if the directory already exists.

Emits an E_WARNING level error if the relevant permissions prevent creating the directory.


Example #1 mkdir() example

("/path/to/my/dir", 0700);

Example #2 mkdir() using the recursive parameter

// Desired directory structure
$structure = './depth1/depth2/depth3/';

// To create the nested structure, the $recursive parameter
// to mkdir() must be specified.

if (!mkdir($structure, 0777, true)) {
'Failed to create directories...');

// ...

See Also

  • is_dir() - Tells whether the filename is a directory
  • rmdir() - Removes directory
  • umask() - Changes the current umask